Fountain Square is square in the central part of Baku. The first city square of Baku. It is located in the Sabail district of the city. On the south side, the square is bordered by Ahmed Javad Street, on the north side by Nigyar Rafibeyli Street. Around the square are monuments of architecture of the XIX and XX centuries, among which is the building of the museum named after. Nizami (1860s), the building of the cinema "Araz"
In the general plan of Baku in 1864 the place for the future square was planned as an area for exercises and parade grounds. The first city square of Baku "Parapet", also known as the Kolyubakinskaya square, was built in 1868 according to the project of the Baku city architect Kasym-bek Hajibababekov. This square was the organizing element of the business and social center of Baku. Its axial, strictly symmetrical composition determined the position of one of the first and leading streets of the Forstadt, now the streets of Mirza Ibrahimov.
Parapet was mainly built up by Kasym-bey Gadzhibababekov. He built two-storey caravanserais (now the Araz cinema and the Nizami museum of Azerbaijani literature), residential buildings for themselves, the Grand Hotel and Metropol hotels.
The square constantly attracted the attention of individuals and provincial authorities, who wanted to build it. When the search for a place for an Orthodox cathedral began in the early 1880s, the choice of the exarch of Georgia fell on Parapet as a convenient square for the parishioners in the center of the city. In the same years, in the same square, the construction of a monument to Alexander II was planned (because of this, the projected area in the local press was sometimes called even the Imperial). However, the decision to build a cathedral or monument on a relatively small area (about 0.8 hectares) is considered unsuccessful. For the cathedral soon was chosen a place on the abolished cemetery, which by that time was surrounded by residential and commercial buildings. In January 1894, the preparatory works were already carried out on the square for gardening the part where it was decided to erect a monument (trees from Borzhom, Tiflis and other cities were being built for this purpose). But the idea of constructing the monument was also not realized because of a lack of funds (after the revolution, this issue was completely removed).
It should be noted that in Parapet at different times, in addition to the cathedral and the monument, private individuals sought permission from the Duma to build the building of the People's Theater. In the years 1914-1918. in connection with the successful work on the construction of the Shollar aqueduct on Parapet, a shady square was broken.
Later Parapet turned into a square named after Karl Marx. After the reconstruction of the 1950s (architect I. Tikhomirov), this square consolidated its position in the planning of a modern city. As a result, the square turned into a spacious, well-landscaped square square, connected with small old squares near the Palace of the Press and the library building. Occupying a central place in the central part of Baku, the park for many years was in the focus of the main pedestrian flows.
A new stage of reconstructive works on the transformation of the square was started in 1984. According to the plan of the architect-artist R. Seifullayev, the previously existing square was significantly modified. Substantially renewed the composition of green spaces, a view of the once unobtrusive group of exotic palms, a new look of broad-deciduous deciduous trees. The area of the square and square is covered with special concrete slabs of a reddish shade; The terraces and the steps of the square are edged with a white stone. Large squares for the flower beds were also made of white stone. An important part of the architectural and landscape composition of the park began to make up fountains. It is because of the large number of fountains that it began to be called the Fountain Square. The fountain in the center of the square is decorated with a sculptural composition. Another group of fountains was placed between the edge of the park and the surrounding historical buildings of the city.
In 2010, the Fountain Square underwent a complete reconstruction. Fountains, pavilions and kiosks were reconstructed, vegetation was preserved, and the area of green plantations was increased. On July 2, the square opened to visitors.