Nakhichevan, Azerbaijan

Nakhichevan, Azerbaijan
Ancient history and modernity of Nakhichevan
The city of Nakhichevan is located right at the border with Iran, on the Nakhichevanchay river.
The oldest city in Azerbaijan. Originated in the VI. BC. as one of the cities of Caucasian Albania, in the XI century. turned into the capital of the state of the Seljukids. In the XII - XIII centuries. - the capital of the state of the Eldigisids, since 1828 in the Russian Empire, since 1923 it has been part of Azerbaijan.
The main attraction of the city are the monuments of medieval architecture: the mausoleums of Yusuf ibn Kuseyir (11th century) and Momine Khatun (12th century), the Gyaur-Kala fortress (Shakhtakhty, II millennium BC), and the unique Khudaferin bridges across the Araks .
In Nakhichevan there is a university, a scientific center of the Azerbaijan Academy of Sciences, theaters, a literary and historical museum, an art gallery. Not far from Nakhichevan is the fortress of Alinja-Kala (XI-XIII cc.)


Mausoleum of Yusuf ibn Kuseyir (12th century), Nakhichevan
In the people this mausoleum is known as "Atababa". A very beautiful building, representing an octagonal cylinder, decorated with geometric patterns of baked brick, covered with a dome-pyramid. Each facet of the mausoleum is a separate sample of art, decorated with a geometric ornament of bricks. The mausoleum is two-tiered. The upper part of the mausoleum is surrounded by an inscription indicating the buried face and the year of construction. The entrance is indicated by a curved arch. The burial itself is in the underground part of the mausoleum. You can go down through the hatch, in the upper floor.

Alinja-Kala fortress, Nakhichevan
In the south-east of Nakhichevan, at the border with Iran, lies the city of Julfa. Not far from it, on the bare peak of the mountain rising in the middle of the wide plain, is the ancient fortress of Alinja-Kala (XI-XIII cc.), Located on the right bank of the Alinja River. This is one of the most powerful defensive structures of the time, where the main Eldegiz treasure was also kept.
Numerous defensive, hydrotechnical, residential and palace constructions of Alinja-Kala occupy the top of the mountain and its slopes. Powerful rows of stone walls in several lines go from the foot of the mountain to the top. In the shade, pool-tanks, collecting rain and thawed water, were concealed.

Julfa caravanserai (XIII century), Nakhichevan
West of Djulfa, right on the bank of the Araks, a caravanserai was found - one of the largest caravanserais of Azerbaijan. The remains of this caravanserai were discovered in 1974. And then entire structures were excavated.
Excavations of the Julfa caravan-sara defined it as one of the largest caravan-sarays in the territory of Azerbaijan (total length is 37 meters). It was erected from a well-ground square brick, on top was covered with a spherical dome. Numerous internal premises, intended for habitation, are plastered with a hedge solution. In the east wing is a large room with deep niches - apparently - prayer halls.
Next to the kavaran-shed were the remains of a bridge built by the Nakhichevan ruler Hakim Zia ad-Din at the beginning of the 14th century.

Mausoleum of Gyulistan
Mausoleum of Karabaglar
Momine-Khatun Mausoleum
Khudaferinsky bridges