Shirvan National Park
Year of Foundation: 2003
Area (hectare): 54373.5
Location: On the territory of Salyan region, as well as Garadagh and Neftchala districts of Baku.
Summary description: Created to protect and reproduce the Persian gazelle (Gazella sulguturosa), waterfowl and typical plant biotypes of the Shirvan Lowland. If you take into account the climatic conditions, the reserve is located in the zone of a moderately warm semi-desert and arid steppe. Summers are hot and dry, the winters are mild and dry.
Vegetation in the reserve is represented by several species. Desert type is represented by Halocnemum, Halostachys and Salicornia, which grow in solonchaks. The Halocnemum plant occupies about 40% of the territory of the reserve. The most common form of Halocnemum is strobilaceum. Phytocenosis Halostachys has a complex structure and a richer saturated composition than Halocnemum. Halostachys grows on top of a hill, the slopes of the mountains are covered with crops and multicolored grass belonging to a group of ephemeral.
Salicornia plant grows in a small area of the central part of the reserve as a result of wet salt lakes and a high level of groundwater. In addition to Salicornia europaea, ranchenia and lemongrass are also growing.
Semidesert type of plants is represented by phytocenosis and ephemeral warm water plants. The most
The last vegetative community, covering 40% of the territory of the reserve has a rich content. There are warm water plants, among them there are also 20-25 ephemeral species, including mant cereals: Poa bulbosa, Bromus, hare barley (Hordeum leporium).
Meadow plants grow on the humid lowlands of the relief. The grass is 2-layered and consists of the Cambrian thorn (first layer) and Aeluropus repens (second layer). In some places wormwood and barley hare (Hordeum leporium) are found.
The fauna of the reserve is poorly understood. Among the unicellular animals there are a green toad, a lake frog and Hylidae. Among the reptiles are the swamp, Caspian and Mediterranean tortoises, lizard, water snake (Natrix natrix), Vipera lebetina and others. Ornithofauna is also not well understood, but, referring to existing data, there are Bustard (Otides), Francolinus francolinus, small bustard (Otis tetrax), eagle-tailed eagle (Heliaeetus albicilla), steppe eagle (Aquila nipalensis), peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus) , the gray-headed falcon (Falco cherrug) and Pterocletes oriebtalis. In winter, a large number of migratory birds are observed in the water bodies: gray goose (Anser anser), wild duck (Anas platyphynchus), pintail (Anas acuta) and others.
Rare species of mammals include the Persian gazelle (Gazella sulguturosa), wild boar, wolf, jackal, fox (Felis chaus) fox, badger, European hare and others. The Persian gazelle (Gazella sulguturosa), the bustard (Otidis), the small bustard (Otis tetrax), the white-tailed eagle (Heliaeetus albicilla), the steppe eagle (Aquila nipalensis), the peregrine falcon (Falco cherrug), the gray-headed falcon, the Mediterranean tortoise are listed in the Red Book.
The most protected objects are the natural semi-desert complexes of the northeastern Shirvani, which in turn are distinguished by the world's largest population of Persian gazelle (Gazella sulguturosa) and a marsh ecosystem that is a nesting site, a migratory route and a wintering ground for many valuable and rare birds the western part of Lake Shor-Gel)